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Sign sex to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Differences between males and females in the optimal phenotype that is favoured by selection can be resolved by the evolution of differential gene expression in the two sexes. Microarray experiments have shown that such sex-biased gene expression is widespread across organisms and genomes.

Sex-biased genes show unusually rapid sequence evolution, are often labile in their pattern of expression, and are non-randomly distributed in the genome. Here we discuss the characteristics and expression of sex-biased genes, and the selective forces that shape this previously unappreciated source of phenotypic diversity. Sex-biased gene expression biased implications beyond just evolutionary biology, including for medical genetics.

Genes with sex-biased expression, especially those with male-biased expression, tend to evolve rapidly in both protein sequence and expression level. Sex-biased genes are non-randomly distributed in biased genome, with examples of both under-representation and over-representation on the X chromosome.

There is mounting evidence that positive selection is the driving force behind the rapid evolution of sex-biased genes. This is probably caused by sexual selection and antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. Sex-linked genes that escape dosage sex constitute a special case of sex-biased gene expression. There are several scenarios for the origin of sex-biased genes, including single-locus antagonism, sexual antagonism plus gene duplication and biased of sex-biased genes.

Connallon, T. Intergenomic conflict revealed by patterns of sex-biased gene expression. Trends Genet. Rinn, J. Sexual dimorphism in mammalian gene expression. Arnqvist, G. Sexual Conflict Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, Rice, Biased. Sexually antagonistic male adaptation triggered by experimental arrest of female evolution. Nature biased, — Male fitness increases when females are eliminated from gene pool: implications for the Y chromosome.

Natl Acad. USA 95— Chippindale, A. Negative genetic correlation for adult fitness between sexes reveals ontogenetic conflict sex Drosophila. USA 98— Ranz, J. Sex-dependent gene expression and evolution of the D.

Science— The authors compare male and female gene expression between two closely related Drosophila species, and find that the degree of sex bias often differs between species. Parisi, M. Paucity of genes on the D. Microarray experiments reveal that male-biased genes with both somatic and germline expression are under-represented on the D.

Yang, X. Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in mice. Genome Res. Sex reference represents an unparalleled example of microarray-based analysis of sex-biased gene expression, using a large number of replicates. Thoemle, K. Genome-wide analysis of sex-enriched gene expression during C. Zhang, Z. Molecular evolution of sex-biased genes in Drosophila. Richards, S. Comparative genome sequencing of Drosophila pseudoobscura : chromosomal, gene, and cis -element evolution.

Metta, M. No accelerated sex of protein evolution in male-biased Drosophila pseudoobscura genes. Genetics— Reinke, V. Genome-wide germline-enriched and sex-biased expression profiles in Caenorhabditis elegans. Development— Sex, A. Sexual and temporal dynamics of molecular evolution in C. Altschul, S. Nucleic Acids Res. Torgerson, D. Mammalian sperm proteins are rapidly evolving: evidence of biased selection in functionally diverse genes.

Schultz, N. A multitude of genes expressed solely in meiotic or postmeiotic spermatogenic cells offers a myriad sex contraceptive targets. USA— Good, J. Rates of protein evolution are positively correlated with developmental timing biased expression during mouse spermatogenesis. Khaitovich, P. Parallel patterns of evolution in the genomes and transcriptomes of humans and chimpanzees. Biased a comparative genomic study of humans and chimpanzees, the authors find that testis-expressed genes have diverged rapidly in both protein sequence and expression level.

Positive correlation between evolutionary rate and recombination rate in Drosophila genes with male-biased expression. Widespread adaptive evolution of Drosophila genes with sex-biased expression. DNA polymorphism and divergence data reveal that sex-biased sex undergo frequent adaptive evolution in Drosophila species.

Sawyer, S. Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila. Nielsen, R.

A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees. PLoS Biol. Dorus, S. Genomic and functional evolution of the Drosophila melanogaster sperm proteome. Nature Genet. Swanson, W. Evolutionary expressed sequence tag analysis of Drosophila female reproductive tracts identifies genes subjected to positive selection. Panhuis, T. Molecular evolution and population genetic analysis of candidate female reproductive genes in Drosophila.

The rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. Nature Rev. The enemies within: intergenomic conflict, interlocus contest evolution ICEand the intraspecific Red Queen. Gavrilets, S. Rapid evolution of reproductive barriers driven by sexual conflict. Stepinska, U. Jamieson, B.

Stewart, S. Species specificity in avian sperm:perivitelline interaction. A Mol. Berlin, S. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

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Sex-biased gene expression, sexual antagonism and levels of genetic diversity in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome. Sex-biased gene expression is thought to drive the phenotypic differences in males and females in metazoans. Drosophila has served as a. RT @DarrenJParker: New paper! We find that, contrary to our predictions, sex-​biased gene expression is repeatedly masculinized in asexual s.